Major depressive disorder (MDD) is one of the most common psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents. As a result of the symptom variation between children and adults, MDD is often unrecognized and left untreated. Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a persistent state of sadness and loss of interest lasting at least 2 weeks that can impact how one feels, thinks, and behaves and can result in emotional and physical problems. This is the more severe form of depression and can lead to changes in behaviors, sleep, energy levels, and self-confidence. Within children and adolescents, they may seem lethargic or display a decreased interest in activities they once found enjoyable and display irritability and/or persistent sadness lasting at least 2 weeks. Within the school environment, they may isolate themselves from others.
- Increased irritability.
- Crying or shouting outburst.
- Displaying symptoms of anxiety.
- Decreased interest in play.
- Thoughts of worthlessness or suicide.
- Increased bodily complaints (i.e., stomach ache, headache).
- Low self-esteem and feelings of guilt and hopelessness.
- Increased boredom.
- Poor school performance
- Difficulty sleeping.
- Loss of appetite.
- Thoughts of self-harm or suicide.